Case Management and Human Behaviour


This evaluation reviews the case study of Katerina who encountered an accident six months ago.  The accident left her with a minor brain injury which resulted in cognitive, emotional as well as physical changes. Specifically, the effect is that she suffers from mild ataxia. More so, she is not confident when walking among crowds. Also, she never conducts the activities that she used to before the accident. For instance, she does not go to the gym or plays soccer which was among her favorite activities.  Besides, she has complained about problems with the short-term memory. Another symptom is that she is tired almost all the time, and she cannot concentrate for a long period of time. Additionally, it is difficult for her to follow a conversation. One major concern with Katrina is that she may be suffering from depression. Her partner describes her as being disinterested in activities that she once was fond of. In the same regard, the sleeping patterns are disrupted as she has been reported of both having problems in getting sleep and staying asleep. All the symptoms that she exhibits points at post-traumatic stress disorder which could have been caused by the accident. The evaluation reveals psychosocial factors, mental health issues as well as the appropriate therapeutic relationship which are required in case management practice (Javidi & Yadollahie, 2012).

Psychosocial factors

Psychosocial factors determine whether clients seek and accept various ways mental illnesses are managed. These factors are powerful in determining adherence to different interventions.  Some of the psychosocial factors that  may affect the management of katrinas condition is the social-economic status of her family (Bisson & Andrew, 2009). This entails the availability of funds so as to seek medical care. The second factor is the social advantage of the patient in the society. For instance, the availability of helpful programs to assist the patient in the community could be help to the mental patients.  Most importantly one of the psychosocial factors that affect the patient, in this case, is the close social relationships (Dixon & Richard, 2003).  Relationships often determine whether clients will be ready to engage in any form of management, supportive relationship by spouses and family members usually has a positive impact. Stable relationships help the affected party in avoidance of anxiety and also provides an avenue for the management of certain emotional problems (Tol et al., 2011). By engaging in a healthy relationship with her partner and also her family members, Katrina would be in a position to overcome her low mood and to change her current mental status. This would also boost her self-confidence and self-esteem. The family members, as well as her partner, should offer the required moral support so as to encourage her to seek management services as well as rehabilitation services.

Mental Health Issues

Several people develop mental illness before or during employment.  Mental health issues may also be a result of a traumatic injury as in the case of Katrina.  It is important to manage or control the illnesses without affecting the patients work. Sometimes signs of mental illness go unnoticed at the places of work. However, it is possible to recognize the symptoms in workers who have mental health problems by observing their social interactions with their fellow colleagues.  It can be done through assessment  of the conversations or consultations among people with working in the same environment (Zur, 2006). Individuals with mental health problems sometimes tend to be withdrawn. More so it is important to observe the routine activities of the individual so as to determine if there is consistency in behaviour (Buckley, 2007).

At times assessment can be conducted by measuring the workers’ productivity by checking their performance. It should be clear to the employers and the colleges of those affected that some mental illnesses develop in the workplace whereas others are contributed or exacerbated by the environment they are working in (Dziopa & Ahern, 2009). Employers and managers are responsible for creating a safe workplace for those employees with mental conditions. They are obliged in identifying factors contributing to mental health and after that take actions to minimize or eliminate the risks (Orme, 2012). This will ensure that the mental illnesses are neither created nor exacerbated. It will also ensure workers with mental illnesses are supported well.

The employers should develop communication strategies which will enable them to talk about mental illnesses issues with the workers, privacy and confidentiality should be highly mainatained. In case they are uncomfortable in communicating with the workers, other professionals such as psychologists, social workers or any individual with information on mental health can be involved. Employers should make reasonable adjustments so that the mentally ill workers can fit in and this will enhance efficiency and productivity (Dziopa & Ahern, 2009). This can be achieved through offering flexible working arrangements such as shifts, changing the working area or purchasing or modifying available equipment

Additionally, the employers can come up with strategies to address individuals with memory and concentration problems. As such, it can be achieved through writing of instructions instead of just saying verbally, highlighting weighty information, which requires being prioritized, providing diaries, using diagrams or aids for demonstration of tasks which are required (Norcross & Lambert, 2011). For those with concentration problems, extra time should be given to complete assigned work, allow break between working periods, and reduce destructors reduction of noise and explaining complex information in clear terms. Finally, the employer should address difficulty with establishing social interactions with workers through allowing workers accomplish some work at their homes for a short period making the work less social and not making social activities mandatory (Bisson & Andrew, 2009).

So as determine if Katrina had any mental disorder, a mental status examination should be conducted. The examination entails asking the patient various recommended questions.  The questions are configured n a particular test known as the mental health screening tool.  Some of the most relevant questions to be asked in this case include whether the patient is having nightmares, whether the patient has become watchful easily following the accident. More so, the patient should be assessed by having a history of any mental conditions. Additionally, the family history should also be evaluated by screening for the presence of the condition in other family members.

Katrina has impaired sleep-wake pattern, low interest in friendship and hobbies. Besides, she lacks enjoyment in previously pleasurable activities, difficulty in remembering things and reduced concentration and therefore, this confirms she has a mental condition. Psychotherapy would be the most appropriate intervention in the management of Katrina’s condition, and this can be achieved through individual or group psychotherapy. Individual psychotherapy will aim at bringing change in Katrina through exploring feelings, attitudes, and behavior which will be achieved through a one on one relationship between her and a therapist. This therapy will create a better understanding of her, and it will enhance personal changes and improve interpersonal relationships.

Therapeutic Relationship

A therapeutic relationship determines the client’s health and well-being as well as the health outcome.  For effective management of  mental conditions,  the relationship should always exist between a therapist and the client (Morphet et al., 2012). The therapist maintains this through the application of knowledge, skills and also application of caring attitudes and behaviours. The therapeutic relationship is based on trust, respect, empathy and professional intimacy (O’Connell, 2008). There should exist a professional boundary between the therapist and the client; this ensures objectivity and appropriate professional responses. The therapist should be in a position to establish trust with the client and know that these clients are vulnerable and their trust is broken, it is difficult to re-establish (Stickley & Freshwater, 2008). Respect entails treating the client with dignity regardless of the differences that may exist.  A therapist will be successful in dealing with a client through her ability to perceive the meaning and feelings of the client and be able to communicate.

When a therapeutic relationship is created, a client is inclined to open up emotionally and give more information about their concerns (Norcross & Lambert, 2011). This, in turn, will enable the therapist to improve the understanding of the affected person's feelings and motives. Moreover, it will enhance the provision of the most appropriate treatment and application of the most effective strategies to address the issues affecting the client (Javidi & Yadollahie, 2012).

Intervention Used to Support Katrina’s Health

Rehabilitation plays a key role in the management of a mentally ill patient. All patients especially those suffering from chronic and persistent mental illnesses should be rehabilitated. The main goal of this rehabilitation is to ensure that the patients develop and regain their emotional social as well as intellectual skills (Conley, Travers, & Bryant, 2013). The rehabilitation is expected to work on two different platforms. The first platform is individual-centered, and the main treatment goal is to ensure that the patient skills are developed so as to cope in a stressful environment.  The second platform is meant to ensure that the potential of the stressors is reduced.  In most cases, the patient will require both strategies to achieve the results of the rehabilitation effectively (Dixon & Richard, 2003).


Mental illnesses affect a large group of people in the society.  As such, it is important to devise various ways of treating and controlling them. Proper diagnoses should be made to enhance the best mode of management. When mental conditions occur, they can be managed through a variety of interventions to help in reducing suffering and promoting client recovery. However, if they are unnoticed, it can be detrimental in a person’s life, relationship with others and also in the workplace. Psychosocial factors from the patient determine the case management and rehabilitation. They can have their positive or negative impacts on the patient’s response to treatment. The relationship between clients is usually very important in determining the effectiveness of the interventions provided (Lorig, Ritter, Pifer, & Werner, 2014). As elaborated various psychosocial and mental factors also affect the mental conditions of the various patients. Some of the factors include the therapeutic relationships which have a great impact on the response of the patient to rehabilitation. Another factor that affects the wellbeing and recovery of the patient is the psychosocial factors.  One of the factors identified from the case include the welfare of the patient.